# splines§

Piecewise polynomial curves (in Euclidean space).

Submodules

 quaternion Quaternions and unit-quaternion splines.

Classes

 Bernstein(segments[, grid]) Piecewise Bézier curve using Bernstein basis. CatmullRom(vertices[, grid, alpha, ...]) Catmull--Rom spline. Re-parameterize a spline to have constant speed. CubicHermite(vertices, tangents[, grid]) Cubic Hermite curve. KochanekBartels(vertices[, grid, tcb, ...]) Kochanek--Bartels spline. Monomial(segments, grid) Piecewise polynomial curve using monomial basis. MonotoneCubic(values, *args, **kwargs) Monotone cubic curve. Natural(vertices[, grid, alpha, endconditions]) Natural spline. NewGridAdapter(curve[, new_grid]) Re-parameterize a spline with new grid values. PiecewiseMonotoneCubic(values[, grid, ...]) Piecewise monotone cubic curve.
class splines.Monomial(segments, grid)[source]§

Bases: object

Piecewise polynomial curve using monomial basis.

Coefficients can have arbitrary dimension. An arbitrary polynomial degree $$d$$ can be used by specifying $$d + 1$$ coefficients per segment. The $$i$$-th segment is evaluated using this equation:

$\boldsymbol{p}_i(t) = \sum_{k=0}^d \boldsymbol{a}_{i,k} \left(\frac{t - t_i}{t_{i+1} - t_i}\right)^k \text{ for } t_i \leq t < t_{i+1}$

This is similar to scipy.interpolate.PPoly, which states:

“High-order polynomials in the power basis can be numerically unstable. Precision problems can start to appear for orders larger than 20-30.”

This shouldn’t be a problem since most commonly splines of degree 3 (i.e. cubic splines) are used.

Parameters
• segments – Sequence of polynomial segments. Each segment $$\boldsymbol{a}_i$$ contains coefficients for the monomial basis (in order of decreasing degree). Different segments can have different polynomial degree.

• grid – Sequence of parameter values $$t_i$$ corresponding to segment boundaries. Must be strictly increasing.

evaluate(t, n=0)[source]§

Get value (or n-th derivative) at given parameter value(s) t.

class splines.Bernstein(segments, grid=None)[source]§

Bases: object

Piecewise Bézier curve using Bernstein basis.

See Bézier Splines.

Parameters
• segments – Sequence of segments, each one consisting of multiple Bézier control points. Different segments can have different numbers of control points (and therefore different polynomial degrees).

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values corresponding to segment boundaries. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

static basis(degree, t)[source]§

Bernstein basis polynomials of given degree, evaluated at t.

Returns a list of values corresponding to $$i = 0, \ldots, n$$, given the degree $$n$$, using the formula

$b_{i,n}(t) = {n \choose i} t^i \left( 1 - t \right)^{n - i},$

with the binomial coefficient $${n \choose i} = \frac{n!}{i!(n - i)!}$$.

evaluate(t, n=0)[source]§

Get value at the given parameter value(s).

class splines.CubicHermite(vertices, tangents, grid=None)[source]§

Cubic Hermite curve.

See Hermite Splines.

Parameters
• vertices – Sequence of vertices.

• tangents – Sequence of tangent vectors (two per segment, outgoing and incoming).

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

matrix = array([[ 2, -2,  1,  1],        [-3,  3, -2, -1],        [ 0,  0,  1,  0],        [ 1,  0,  0,  0]])§
class splines.CatmullRom(vertices, grid=None, *, alpha=None, endconditions='natural')[source]§

Catmull–Rom spline.

This class implements one specific member of the family of splines described in [CR74], which is commonly known as Catmull–Rom spline: The cubic spline that can be constructed by linear Lagrange interpolation (and extrapolation) followed by quadratic B-spline blending, or equivalently, quadratic Lagrange interpolation followed by linear B-spline blending.

The implementation used in this class, however, does nothing of that sort. It simply calculates the appropriate tangent vectors at the control points and instantiates a CubicHermite spline.

Parameters
• vertices – Sequence of vertices.

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

• alpha (optional) – TODO

• endconditions (optional) – Start/end conditions. Can be 'closed', 'natural' or pair of tangent vectors (a.k.a. “clamped”). If 'closed', the first vertex is re-used as last vertex and an additional grid time has to be specified.

class splines.KochanekBartels(vertices, grid=None, *, tcb=(0, 0, 0), alpha=None, endconditions='natural')[source]§

Kochanek–Bartels spline.

Parameters
• vertices – Sequence of vertices.

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

• tcb (optional) – Sequence of tension, continuity and bias triples. TCB values can only be given for the interior vertices.

• alpha (optional) – TODO

• endconditions (optional) – Start/end conditions. Can be 'closed', 'natural' or pair of tangent vectors (a.k.a. “clamped”). If 'closed', the first vertex is re-used as last vertex and an additional grid time has to be specified.

class splines.Natural(vertices, grid=None, *, alpha=None, endconditions='natural')[source]§

Natural spline.

See Natural Splines.

Parameters
• vertices – Sequence of vertices.

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

• alpha (optional) – TODO

• endconditions (optional) – Start/end conditions. Can be 'closed', 'natural' or pair of tangent vectors (a.k.a. “clamped”). If 'closed', the first vertex is re-used as last vertex and an additional grid time has to be specified.

class splines.PiecewiseMonotoneCubic(values, grid=None, slopes=None, *, alpha=None, closed=False)[source]§

Piecewise monotone cubic curve.

This only works for one-dimensional values.

For undefined slopes, _calculate_tangent() is called on the base class.

Parameters
• values – Sequence of values to be interpolated.

• grid (optional) – Sequence of parameter values. Must be strictly increasing. If not specified, a uniform grid is used (0, 1, 2, 3, …).

• slopes (optional) – Sequence of slopes or None if slope should be computed from neighboring values. An error is raised if a segment would become non-monotone with a given slope.

class splines.MonotoneCubic(values, *args, **kwargs)[source]§

Monotone cubic curve.

This takes the same arguments as PiecewiseMonotoneCubic (except closed), but it raises an error if the given values are not montone.

get_time(value)[source]§

Get the time instance for the given value.

If the solution is not unique (i.e. there is a plateau), None is returned.

Bases: object

Re-parameterize a spline to have constant speed.

For splines in Euclidean space this amounts to arc-length parameterization.

However, this class is implemented in a way that also allows using rotation splines which will be re-parameterized to have constant angular speed.

The parameter s represents the cumulative arc-length or the cumulative rotation angle, respectively.

evaluate(s)[source]§
Bases: object
• new_grid (optional) – If a single number is given, the new parameter will range from 0 to that number. Otherwise, a sequence of numbers has to be given, one for each grid value. Instead of a value, None can be specified to choose a value automatically. The first and last value cannot be None.